Thursday, November 8, 2012

All About Passion Fruit in India (Granadilla, Too!)




Many people use granadilla and passion fruit interchangeably; yet, these fruits are quite different. The most noticeable difference is this: if its gelatinous pulp is gray, the fruit is a granadilla. If the pulp is yellow, it’s passion fruit.

Origin Passion Fruit and Granadilla
Purple passion fruits are native to Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Yellow varieties are speculated to originate in the Amazon, though Australia is another contender: As explained in the book, “The Encyclopedia of Nuts and Fruit,” the yellow cultivar may have grown there as a mutant form of Passiflora edulis. Granadilla’s precise origin is unknown or debatable. Botanists agree, however, that it’s native to Mexico, Central America and the western regions of South America. 

According to the book, “Systematics of Fruit Crops,” passion fruits spread to Europe and Southern Asia by the 19th century. In 1880, Hawaii received the fruit by way of Australia.


2007 figures published by ITI Tropocales show that Brazil produces over half of the world’s passion fruits, followed by Ecuador and Colombia. Other main passion fruit producing countries include Peru, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Hawaii.




Availability of Granadilla and Passion Fruit in India
Though purple passion fruit grew in the Nilgiri hills and in the north of India for over a century, yellow varieties are much newer. These fruits came to South India’s lower elevations in Tamil Nadu and Kerala shortly after their arrival to Sri Lanka.

Purple varieties grow better at higher elevations, whereas yellow passion fruit adapts better to lower elevations. The regions of India cultivating purple passion fruits are Meghalaya, Manipur, Sikkim, Mizoram, and Nagaland. Yellow passion fruits grow along the Western Ghats, including Nilgiris, Wynad, Kodaikanal, Shevroys, Coorg, and Malabar.

According to the book, “Fruit Crops: Horticulture Science Series,” passion fruit harvesting occurs during mid-summer; a second, smaller harvest occurs during winter. Granadillas hit the market in the South during late September.

Where to find Granadilla and Passion Fruit in India
Passion fruits appear regularly in most stores during the season. They’re seldom a small shop fruit, but mid-size to large chains will carry passion fruit if available. In the south, sweet granadillas appear with greater frequency than either color passion fruits.


As an industry, neither granadillas nor passion fruits receive much attention. Farmers remain fragmented across the country’s various growing districts, and little has been done to promote transportation and marketing ventures. However, some efforts have been undertaken to develop superior varieties—at the country’s Pineapple Research Station, for example, over 50 types of passion fruits have been collected from the southern states.



Checking for Ripeness in Granadilla and Passion Fruit
The ripeness of granadilla and passion fruit cannot always be gauged based on the appearance of their skin: brown spots and marks covering its golden orange exterior is perfectly acceptable.

The skin of a granadilla should, however, be smooth and free of dents and cracks. Its shell is much harder than passion fruit; furthermore, whereas passion fruit’s skin wrinkles when ripe, granadilla’s remains smooth.

Granadillas and passion fruit resemble mangosteen when ripe: the tough exterior should give to the touch like a malleable piece of plastic. If it’s too difficult to crack passion fruit from applying pressure with the thumb and forefinger on both sides, it’s not yet ripe. When opened, passion fruit’s thick, yet egg-like shell should crack and expose the soft white pith holding the edible gooey flesh.

The gooey pulp surrounding each seed should appear plump, translucent and juicy, not desiccated and shriveled. As the fruit becomes overripe, the fruit loses its moisture and the ball of pulp shrivels.


When opened, smell the fruit: the pulp should have a floral, sweet aroma that gives an accurate foreshadow of its taste. Indeed, the passion fruit’s fresh, clean, tropical fruity smell is the perfect template for shampoo producers.



Taste of Granadilla and Passion Fruit
The gooey, slimy membrane surrounding the crunchy, edible seeds taste significantly better than its alien-like appearance suggests. The initial impression is a sweet, yet mellow and non-acidic. The membrane’s juicy pulp is refreshing, bearing resemblance to guava and melon’s mild nectar with notes of floral and vanilla.

Compared to a sweet, mellow and pleasing granadilla, passion fruit’s membrane is sourer, sharper, livelier and acidic. Of all of the varieties, the purple ones are purported to be the sweetest whereas the yellow can be pungently tart. The yellow cultivars in India, however, are reputed to be sweeter than even the purples.

Closer to the seeds, the gelatinous goo tastes significantly sourer, saltier and slightly bitter. These notes still complement the pulp’s initial sweetness, but add a new dimension to the bite. The finishing touches are the seed’s crunchiness, which leaves a sour finish to what was otherwise a sweet start. Granadilla and passion fruit share this multifaceted, evolving taste with pomegranate.


The white spongy, cottony pith is like an orange: perfectly edible but tasteless.

John Ocampo
Nutritional Value of Granadilla/Passion Fruit
The USDA’s database uses passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and granadilla (Passiflora ligularis) interchangeably, as do most other resources. Thus, according to the USDA nutrient database, 100g of edible passion fruit/granadilla contain the following values:

97kcal
23.4g Carb (8% RDI)
24.7g Fat (1% RDI)
10.4g Fiber (42% RDI)
2.2g Protein (4% RDI)
1272IU Vitamin A (25% RDI)*
30mg Vitamin C (50% RDI)
.1mg Riboflavin (8% RDI)
1.5mg Niacin (7% RDI)
.1mg Vitamin B6 (5% RDI)
14mcg Folate (3% RDI)
1.6mg Iron (9% RDI)
29mg Magnesium (7% RDI)
68mg Phosphorous (7% RDI)
348mg Potassium (10% RDI)
.1mg Copper (4% RDI)


*Because granadilla’s skin doesn’t have the same yellow hue as passion fruit, granadilla may have less vitamin A than the figure indicated.



Health Benefits of Passion Fruit/Granadilla
Since their arrival, Indians have used passion fruits in traditional medicinal remedies. According to the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, locals in the Northeast boil passion fruit leaves to treat diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes, hypertension, stomach ailments, and as a liver tonic. Europeans have taken interest in the fruit for passion fruit’s sedative, transquilizer-like chemical, passiflorine. In Madeira, locals drink the juice to promote digestion and as a treatment for gastric cancer.

Several studies show amazing health benefits of passion fruit as well:
--According to the Journal of Medical Foods, flour made from passion fruit’s edible peel was found to possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory qualities.
--A study published in Carbohydrate Polymers indicates that compounds in passion fruit contain antitumor agents with no toxicity.
--The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry published a study revealing how the polyphenols in passion fruit act against cardiovascular diseases

--According to a study published in Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention, the seeds in passion fruit exhibited antifungal activity. The study also mentioned promise in the rind’s ability to treat diabetes, colon cancer, and diseases stemming from diverticulitis.



How to Open/Cut:
Open passion fruit by pinching it on both sides with the thumb and forefinger. It should crack open. Peel aside the white pith encasing the flesh, and either use a spoon to scoop out the gelatinous part, or slurp it out.

Some choose to cut the fruit in half with a knife—an acceptable method. Using the fingers, however, provides the best gauge of ripeness.


If using the passion fruit in a recipe, extricate the seeds from the pulp. Achieve this by scooping out the flesh and putting it in a blender. No water is necessary. Pulse the fruit lightly and for a short time, as the goal is to keep the juice as seedless as possible. Pour the lightly blended fruit through a sieve. Do not force the juice through the strainer—let the juice sift on its own. 

Storage:
Keep granadillas and passion fruits on the counter until ripe—they’ll keep at room temperature for two to five days. In the refrigerator, passion fruits maintain freshness for up to a week.


For those desiring to enjoy the fruit long after the season has passed, freeze by scooping out the flesh and freezing in an ice cube tray. Once frozen, place the cubes in a plastic bag. The fruit maintain its flavor for at least 8 months.

Vegan coconut passion fruit sorbet from
Cafe Liz

Passion Fruit and Granadilla Recipe Ideas and Uses:
The bad news: each fruit contains very little juice. The good news: a little juice packs a walloping flavor. If requiring plenty of juice, then choose the yellow type or granadilla—these two yield more juice than purple passion fruit.

--Make a refreshing slushie by blending ice with any of the fruits mentioned below and stirring in passion fruit pulp. Add alcohol if desired.
--Add passion fruit juice to preserves and gelatins. The flavor pairs well with orange juice, lemon, and guava. It is possible to preserve passion fruit with some lemon juice and sugar, though this requires utilizing the white piths. Remove the juice and seeds, and then boil the fruit halves for 30 minutes until soft. Blend these halves with water, and then transfer to the stove. Simmer with lemon juice, sugar, and water.
--Make a passion fruit icing by combining passion fruit juice with beaten powdered sugar, margarine, vanilla extract, and soymilk. Lather this icing over citrus-based, coconutty, or vanilla-based sweet breads, cookies and cupcakes. Passion fruit’s brightness complements warming spices, so consider adding the juice to spiced nut loaves or gingerbread.
--Add passion fruit pulp over pancakes, custards, and add the juice to ice cream batters and sorbets.
--Create a tropical passion fruit mousse, utilizing gelatin, sugar, and coconut milk. Drizzle with chocolate sauce.
--Include passion fruit in raw cheesecake recipes by topping any cake slices with frozen passion fruit juice. Remember: a little juice goes a long way.
--Add passion fruit pulp to vegan yogurts and use this concoction as the topping of any tropical fruit salad.

--Include passion fruit juice with sparkling water for a refreshing beverage.

Vegan passionfruit cheesecake from
Emilycooksvegan.com


Flavor Complements:
Guava, muskmelon, papaya, watermelon, mango, pineapple, strawberry, banana, cherry, apricot, citrus

Herbs, spices, and oil: orange juice, lemon juice, limejuice, any tropical fruit juice, guava puree, coconut derivatives (flakes, milk, water), club soda, white wine, champagne, mint, vanilla, nutmeg, cinnamon, clove, ginger

Random Facts:
Over 400 varieties of passion fruit exist in the world. India especially proud of its kaveri variety, a hybrid of purple and yellow passion fruit developed in Karnataka.


Passion fruit received its English name by Catholic priests, who named the fruit after the passion of the Christ. According to them, the flower abounds with symbolism: the ten petals represent the 10 apostles, the three styles for the three nails, the five stamens symbolize the wounds, and tendrils represent the cords. Even its colors, white and blue, symbolize purity and heaven.

Scientific Name:
Passiflora ligularis
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis)
Golden passion fruit

Other Names:
Passion fruit

Related Fruits:

Giant granadilla (Passiflora quadrangularis)







13 comments:

  1. I live in Venezuela where Passion Fruit is very common. Almost every day we do mainly a juice by blending three passion fruits for 1.5 or 2 lts. of water. Strain, add sugar and ice to taste. We also do a dessert based on bananas, passion fruit and condensed milk: Just cur the bananas in pieces, add trhe contents of the passion fruit and mix with condensed milk. Chill and enjoy! If it is too sweet just substitute condensed milk with yougurt.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hi,

    Do you have any information on Seville Orange or Bitter Lime? I live in India.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Very good information, Its really help me. Thank you Very much. If anyone buy Passion fruit tree in India, Here is the information:
    http://shantinursery.blogspot.in/2014/08/buy-passion-fruit-tree-in-India.html

    ReplyDelete
  4. hi if you happen to be in the west, I recommend Markizza Passion fruit juice that I found on Amazon, the taste is perfect. you can also check it on www.delifreshusa.com

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hey, very nice site. I came across this on Google, and I am stoked that I did. I will definitely be coming back here more often. Wish I could add to the conversation and bring a bit more to the table, but am just taking in as much info as I can at the moment. Thanks for sharing.
    Mango Juice

    Keep Posting:)

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hi thankx for the information.. we are granadilla farmers in hills of munnar

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    Replies
    1. Dear Mr. Anoop.. I am looking for a reliable supplier of Passion Fruit in bulk. Could you please suggest. Please email me to mailtosuraj@yahoo.com

      My name is Suraj and I am from Palakkad, Kerala

      Delete
    2. Mr.Anoop please contact me.Iam Ansari from punalur ,kollam. 9746682852

      Delete
  7. Thanks.. Information is really well-researched, and presentation very professional and very complete... It was useful...

    ReplyDelete
  8. Hi we require passion fruit seeds for export to european markets. If you can supply please mail me on mkemkar@unicorningredients.com. My name is Mayur Kemkar.

    ReplyDelete
  9. hi
    i need for passion fruits . which place in manufacture

    ReplyDelete
  10. Satish

    Hi iam finding Passion Fruit Puree from india please contact me by mail, megash9@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  11. Satish

    Hi iam finding Passion Fruit Puree from india please contact me by mail, megash9@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete